Family: Solitary, gregarious, or colonial; most are aloricate, some form lorica; each zooid has its own,
independently contractile myoneme in full length of stalk.
Genus: Solitary, but often gregarious; myoneme continuous within full length of stalk (Illustrated Guide, 1985).
Species: Resembles V. campanula; but anterior end somewhat narrow; usually without refractile granules in endoplasm; 50-95 μm long, 35-53 μm wide; peristome 55-75 μm wide (Kudo, 1966).
Vorticella convallaria, x 400, x 640, Japan, 1998 by Y. Tsukii